Friday, October 18, 2019
Gender Variation in Racial Discrimination as a Factor in Academic Literature review
Gender Variation in Racial Discrimination as a Factor in Academic Achievement - Literature review Example Teachers and related school officials are human and subject to discriminatory feelings that can affect their relationships with the children that they are charged with nurturing intellectually. Those children they affect can be permanently affected by negative discriminatory practices either on gender or racial level. Adolescents are no exception. Aspects of the identity and the self are compromised when social differences mean that there are discriminatory experiences that place the concept of inferiority within the experiences that help to form the identity when in a school atmosphere. Gender and Racial Identities Cogburn, Chavous, and Griffin (2011, p. 25) created a study in which gender discrimination experiences that African American adolescents who were in the 8th grade were examined to see if gender was a factor in discrimination experiences that were associated with an academic and psychological function. Girls and boys had no significant variation in the frequency of experie nces, but boys reported that they were discriminated against more frequently because of their gender. Aspects of the race were more significant in affecting self-esteem while aspects of gender were more important in predicting grade point average and academic achievement. This study shows that how children are treated in regards to identifying factors has an effect on future achievement and their sense of self. Cogburn, Chavous, and Griffin (2011, p. 26) used a series of conceptual frameworks through which to address their topic. One of these frameworks is the double jeopardy hypothesis. This asserts that Black females will have double marginalization because they belong to two lower status social groups that are considered minorities: female and Black. This means that they are subject to both racial and gender-based discrimination. The alternative perspective which applies to Black males is that they suffer from both racial discrimination and discrimination based on their subordina tion as Black males in order to diminish them as a threat in the male world. Between the two social groups, Black males have a higher level of discrimination experiences because they are perceived as a higher threat. Cogburn, Chavous, and Griffin (2011, p. 26) also discuss the ethnic-prominence hypothesis which asserts that the racial/ethnic membership has a higher value where discrimination is concerned that the gender membership value.